Friday, June 5, 2020

Brief Introduction of Bhaiṣajya Kalpanā


Bhaiṣajya Kalpanā is Ayurveda Herbal Pharmaceutics. So in this article I want to explain you in brief about Bhaiṣajya Kalpanā. Bhaiṣajya Kalpanā is composed of two words, bhaiṣajya and kalpanā.

Bhaiṣajya or bheṣaja literally means medicine. It is also called as auṣadha. Kalpanā literally means formulation. It is the process or the method used for the preparation of pharmaceutical products. The process which included in kalpanā such as processes like boiling, grinding, heating, frying etc. which are integral part of Ayurveda pharmaceutical.

So the meaning of bhaiṣajya kalpanā is the science which deals in detail about the preparation of various medicines.

Why bhaiṣajya kalpanā is important in Ayurveda?

In Ayurveda, bhaiṣajya kalpanā is important because this science explains various methods of processing a drugs to make the drug becomes more palatable, rich in potency, have good smell, color, long lasting, can be used for various diseases etc.

The science of bhaiṣajya kalpanā explain in detail the method of drug preparation starting from the basic such as Ādhārabhūta siddhanta (basic principle), Kaṣāya kalpanā (fundamental preparation), Bheṣajāgāra (drug manufacturing unit), and other advance knowledge about preparation of medicines.

Ādhārabhūta siddhanta

Ādhārabhūta siddhanta is the basic principle of bhaiṣajya kalpanā. In this basic concept there are some topics considered such as paribhāṣa (definitons), dravya saṅgrahana and samrakṣaṇa (drug collection and storage method), anukta and viśeṣokta grahaṇa (special consideration), rasa-guṇa-vīrya-vipāka-prabhāva (inherent properties of the drugs), māna paribhāṣā (weights and measures), pancavidha kaṣāya kalpanā (fundamental preparations), auṣadha nāmakarana (naming of the preparations), auṣadha sevana kāla (dosage time), savīryatā avadhi (shelf life of the preparations), auṣadha mātra (dosage), and anupāna (adjuvant).

Kaṣāya Kalpanā

Kaṣāya itself has many different meaning. In Ayurveda, kaṣāya is one among the ṣaḍ rasas (six taste). Another meaning of kaṣāya as mentioned is Śabdakalpadruma is to scrape, to rub, to injure or to kill. Kaṣāya also means that which irritates the throat. So kaṣāya kalpanā means that which prevents the body from destruction.

Kaṣāya kalpanā again classified into pancavidha kaṣāya kalpanā, ṣaḍvidha kaṣāya kalpanā, and saptavidha kaṣāya kalpanā. This classification is mentioned by many different Ayurveda Acharya such as Acharya Caraka, Acharya Vagbhaṭa, Acharya Śāraṅgadhara, Arka Prakāśa, Acharya Suśruta and Acharya Kāśyapa.

Pancavidha kaṣāya kalpanā is mentioned in Caraka Samhita Sūtrasthāna 4/6, in Aṣṭāṅga Saṅgraha Kalpasthāna 8/9, in Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdaya Kalpasthāna 6/9, in Śāraṅgadhara Madhyama Khanda 1/1, and in Arka Prakāśa 1/46.

Ṣaḍvidha kaṣāya kalpanā is mentioned in Suśruta Samhita Sūtrasthāna 44/91 and saptavidha kaṣāya kalpanā is mentioned in Kāśyapa Samhita Khilasthāna 3/35.

Pancavidha kaṣāya kalpanā according to Caraka Samhita are svarasa (expressed juice), kalka (paste), śṛta (decoction), śīta (cold infusion), and phāṅṭa (hot infusion).

Pancavidha kaṣāya kalpanā according to Aṣṭāṅga Saṅgraha are niryāsa (expressed juice), kalka (paste), niryūha (decoction), śīta (cold infusion), and phāṅṭa (hot infusion).

Pancavidha kaṣāya kalpanā according to Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdaya are rasa (expressed juice), kalka (paste), śṛta (decoction), śīta (cold infusion), and phāṅṭa (hot infusion).

Pancavidha kaṣāya kalpanā according to Śāraṅgadhara are svarasa (expressed juice), kalka (paste), kvātha (decoction), hima (cold infusion), and phāṅṭa (hot infusion).

Pancavidha kaṣāya kalpanā according to Arka Prakāśa are kalka (paste), cūrna (powder), rasa (expressed juice), taila (oil), and arka (milk).

 Ṣaḍvidha kaṣāya kalpanā according to Suśruta Samhita are kṣīra (milk), svarasa (expressed juice), kalka (paste), śṛta (decoction), śīta (cold infusion), and phāṅṭa (hot infusion).

Saptavidha kaṣāya kalpanā according to Kāśyapa Samhita are cūrna (powder), śīta (cold infusion), svarasa (expressed juice), abhiṣāva (fermented), phāṅṭa (hot infusion), kalka (paste), and kvātha (decoction).

Bheṣajāgāra

Bheṣajāgāra is the drugs manufacturing unit. It is also called as rasaśālā. It is the pharmacy where the medicine prepared.

There is some rule to be followed in the constructing the drug manufacturing unit, such as regarding the selection of area or place where the pharmacy will build, the human resources, the availability of the water, drug raw material etc.

The classical references regarding the establishment of manufacturing unit can be find in Rasa Taraṅgini and Rasa Ratna Samucchaya. As now is modern era, the establishment of manufacturing unit is compulsory to follow the Good Manufacturing Unit.



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